Lazowski et al. and Ford et al. applied the energy culture framework to investigate household decision-making and energy behaviour in relation to smart grid contexts in Ontario and New Zealand . A version of household socio-material participation has been used in several studies , and Hansen and Hauge used the related notion of the script. Some have also discussed the need for more theory development; for example, Khalid et al. reminded us that conceptualising practices as shared or socially differentiated entities in different cultural contexts calls for further theory development. As discussed above, one dominant strand of earlier research concerns sociotechnical imaginaries and narratives. The concept of sociotechnical imaginaries, developed by Jasanoff and Kim , has been used as an analytical approach to examining visions and futures concerned with smart grids (e.g. ).
His background with a variety of medical device companies has been invaluable to Biomedical Devices of Kansas, llc. John has made has made a real difference in the ability of our Company to effectively manage regulatory and quality systems, as well as product and market development efforts. Medical device companies can have my utmost assurance that John will bring his vast repertoire of skills to each and every client. Based on first-hand experience, I highly recommend John and his services. In this section, we synthesise the records and present our results in relation to the overall trends and themes identified in the analysis .
The identification of these two strands is still very much valid, even though the field has widened and more perspectives have been introduced—a matter to which we return below. This article reviews the social science literature on smart grids, meaning that we are interested in earlier research on smart grids in relation to social processes, organisations and institutions. We wanted to discover how smart grids have been studied from a social science standpoint and what topics have been addressed, considering when, where, and in what ways this matters for the development of the field. We chose to focus on research on social aspects, hence no hypothesis was proposed; rather, the study method was designed to be exploratory and qualitative, as that best served our aims.
We’ll have to wait for technical reviews on this lens, but the initial specs are impressive. Gancheva M, O’Brien S, Crook N, Monteiro C. Models of local energy ownership and the role of local energy communities in energy transition in Europe. Another trend in the research analysed is that most studies have concentrated on the distributed smart grid, whereas there has been less examination of the centralised grid or the centralised–decentralised nexus. Most studies have also been case studies geographically located in Europe or North America. The earliest study in our dataset is from 2012, and the field has since then continued to develop. Four papers were published in 2013, eight in 2014, and 19 in 2015, after which there was a dip in the number of published articles (see Fig.2).
The field has had a user focus, especially in underlining behaviour and practices at home. Less attention, however, has been paid to company and industry processes. Hence, more studies of, for example, business anthropology or ethnographies https://globalcloudteam.com/ inside companies could be a welcome addition to the field. An interesting study that has taken such a turn is that of Grandclément , who described working as a sociologist for seven years in the R&D department of an energy company.
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Will it be possible to remain on grid but still avoid using related smart technology? As yet, no study has explored the tensions between participation and non-participation in the smart grid. According to our data, some studies investigate how people participate in the smart grid, but far fewer studies consider their willingness to participate. This might, however, be due to the limitations of our study, as we excluded the field of psychology from our search.
Articles concerning peer review on ScienceDirect
Below, we first discuss the challenges the reviewed research faces in studying a smart grid that has not yet materialised, and then reflect on the geographical scope of the research. This is followed by a discussion of the reviewed studies’ theoretical foci. Reviewers evaluate article submissions to journals based on the requirements of that journal, predefined criteria, and the quality, completeness and accuracy of the research presented. They provide feedback on the paper, suggest improvements and make a recommendation to the editor about whether to accept, reject or request changes to the article.
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After merging the results from the two databases and removing duplicates, 1140 hits remained. Three articles were excluded in this phase because they were paywalled, and this left 1137 records, which we subsequently screened. Many believe this is the best way to prevent malicious comments, stop plagiarism, prevent reviewers from following their own agenda, and encourage open, honest reviewing. Others see open review as a less honest process, in which politeness or fear of retribution may cause a reviewer to withhold or tone down criticism. Reviewer anonymity allows for impartial decisions – the reviewers should not be influenced by the authors.
- The IEEE defines formal structures, roles, and processes for software peer reviews.
- An interesting study that has taken such a turn is that of Grandclément , who described working as a sociologist for seven years in the R&D department of an energy company.
- Sovacool et al. noted that a narrative review provides an exploratory evaluation of the literature or a subset of the literature in a particular area.
- As discussed above, one dominant strand of earlier research concerns sociotechnical imaginaries and narratives.
- In future research, it will be important to include the meanings and experiences of the smart grids in different contexts and have more case studies in the Global South.
- According to this perspective, agency is not in the hands of a few key actors but is widely distributed among the many components of an assemblage.
Studies from the UK often treat smart metering and demand–response practices, with a preference for early adopters . The starting point for these studies is how the technology influences energy use and can contribute to, for example, a more flexible consumption pattern. This starting point likely also influenced the theoretical perspective chosen for the analysis, a matter to which we will return below. The papers from the Netherlands are dominated by household studies, often in combination with a social practice theory perspective (e.g. ). More recent studies have also considered more cooperative forms of household engagement and energy communities .
A federal appeals court Tuesday turned to the Florida Supreme Court for help as it considers the constitutionality of a 2021 state law that enhanced penalties and created new crimes in protests that turn violent. This review will outline trends in earlier research, while also identifying the research gaps and reflecting on them. A semi-structured method was found to be the most appropriate approach for addressing the research problem. We are a Spanish manufacturer of neuronavigation system for surgical applications. We have been collaborating with SpectraMedEx company in the past and it was a very satisfactory collaboration. We recommend to work with SpectraMedEx due the big experience in this field and the big results obtained.
Complex Systems and Incremental Reviews and Audits
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This is especially true of line managers of the author or other participants in the review. A policy of encouraging management to stay out of peer reviews encourages the peer review team to concentrate on the product being reviewed and not on the people or personalities involved. There are two philosophies about the vested interest of the inspectors in the product under review. On one hand, project personnel who have a vested interest in the work product under review have the most knowledge of the product and are motivated to find and fix defects. On the other hand, personnel from outside the project who do not have a vested interest in the work product bring objectivity and a fresh viewpoint to the technical peer review team. Regarding material participation, how can a user opt out of the smart grid?
What is peer review?
We wish to thank everyone who contributed to and helped develop the article, especially the editor and all the reviewers whose dedicated work made the article better. Reviewers are not asked to review the same manuscript several times for different journals. Authors may be concerned that reviewers in their field could delay publication, giving the reviewers a chance to publish first. The platform offers discounts for several Elsevier services, including Elsevier’sWebShop, which offers professionalEnglish language editing, translation and illustration services for researchers preparing their articles, and theElsevier Book Store. Reviewing is a time-intensive process – writing a review report can be almost as much work as writing a manuscript! – but it is very worthwhile for the reviewer as well as for the community.
Reviewers’ Update articles
Smart technologies, such as smart grids, are emerging as indispensable aspects of an energy transformation and come with hopes of more sustainable resource use. A substantial amount of research has examined the technical, economic, and environmental implications of these technologies, but less attention has been paid to their social aspects. For the smart grid projects to be realised, studies that include the actors definition of technical reviewer who are supposed to implement the visions are needed. The purpose of technical peer reviews is to remove defects as early as possible in the development process. An absent or vague definition of the smart grid, or a technology-oriented definition, often results in overlooking different conceptions of the smart grid and contributes to disregarding aspects important to, e.g. actors who are supposed to implement it.
Lunde et al. used this approach in considering how different paths include different elements of the smart grid discourse, while highlighting different policies and strategies. One pathway was that of a European SuperGrid and the other was a decentralised energy system centring on local actors . Another theoretical perspective we found in our data concerned governmentality, often drawing on neoliberal theories or critical studies. Lovell noted that “the most valuable insight provided by a governmentality lens for those interested in processes of technological change concerns the close two-way relationship between the rationalities and technologies of government” (p. 592). In another study, Laes and Bombaerts explored neoliberal governmentality and energy communities, but there are not that many studies on how the technical issues of policy implementation have together influenced the emergence of smart grid policy in different countries.
The material participation of users has also been examined in many studies, as mentioned above. The study objects are often smart home devices, such as smart meters, a mobile phone app, a rooftop PV installation, or an electric vehicle. Material participation through renewable technologies in the home is a recurrent topic, with the empowered and engaged citizen in the foreground. Ryghaug et al. found that such physical and embodied experiences open up new ways for users to engage with and take responsibility for the future energy transition. Experiences with rooftop PVs or electric vehicles in the driveway represent new ways to engage with the grid, scripting certain behaviours and leading to proactive shifts in household electricity consumption . A result of this lack of actual smart grids is that several studies instead concentrated on visions and imaginaries of the future manifestations (e.g. ).
Technical peer reviews are a well defined review process for finding and fixing defects, conducted by a team of peers with assigned roles. Technical peer reviews are carried out by peers representing areas of life cycle affected by material being reviewed . Technical peer reviews are held within development phases, between milestone reviews, on completed products or completed portions of products. Lastly, we want to acknowledge the limitations of the study and discuss alternative ways of conducting this type of review.
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